ipt type="text/javascript"> (fun

# Thread: Relative permeability normalization of special core analysis result

1. Junior Member

Join Date
Mar 2009
Posts
19

## Relative permeability normalization of special core analysis result

Dear all
I have gone through a sumulation study report, there expert have mentioned
"water-oil & gas-oil relative permeability data have been used on the basis of experimental data on core of well#XYZ. They have gererated 6 set of data tables at different Swi & Sor

my question is what is the method of normalization if some body can explain the matter in an excel file alongwith theory and step will be helpful for lay men like me

2. Spons Circuit
Join Date
Always
Posts
Many

3. Very Active Member

Join Date
Nov 2008
Location
Australia
Posts
508
At a high level, 'normalization' means making some changes to various data such that their characteristics can be compared in the same space

In this case, normalizing rel per curves usually involves
(a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
You now have rel perm data defined from Swn = 0 (residual water) to Swn=1.0 (Sw = 1-Sor)

(b) Dividing all the rel perm values by the rel perm to hydrocarbon at residual water, so that (for example, oil/water) at Swn=0, Kro=1. Sometimes this is also done for the water line

Now you have a family of rel perms, all spanning the same ranges, which you can compare/overlay and look for similarities/groupings in shape/curvature. If you do find a family shape characteristic, then you normally fit a corey type exponent to it, then try to fit a set of equations to predict the endpoints as a function of (for example) perm and/or facie. Given these relationships, you can now make a reasonable prediction of any of this family of rock in your reservoir.
Last edited by vinomarky; 09-17-2010 at 02:21 PM.

4. -

5. mid
Senior Member

Join Date
Oct 2007
Posts
95
I think the best is to split the curves into different rock types, then from there merge the curves that shares same rock type using either kr or sw averaging methods with preference to kr average

6. Junior Member

Join Date
Mar 2009
Posts
19
Originally Posted by mid
I think the best is to split the curves into different rock types, then from there merge the curves that shares same rock type using either kr or sw averaging methods with preference to kr average
could you elaborate with an examples how to do it

7. Junior Member

Join Date
Mar 2009
Posts
19
Originally Posted by vinomarky
At a high level, 'normalization' means making some changes to various data such that their characteristics can be compared in the same space

In this case, normalizing rel per curves usually involves
(a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
You now have rel perm data defined from Swn = 0 (residual water) to Swn=1.0 (Sw = 1-Sor)

(b) Dividing all the rel perm values by the rel perm to hydrocarbon at residual water, so that (for example, oil/water) at Swn=0, Kro=1. Sometimes this is also done for the water line

Now you have a family of rel perms, all spanning the same ranges, which you can compare/overlay and look for similarities/groupings in shape/curvature. If you do find a family shape characteristic, then you normally fit a corey type exponent to it, then try to fit a set of equations to predict the endpoints as a function of (for example) perm and/or facie. Given these relationships, you can now make a reasonable prediction of any of this family of rock in your reservoir.
dear vinomarky sir
will you help me to understand above procedure you have speaked
i have attached my excel file from where expert have deduced sets of data

[link Point to another website Only the registered members can access]

8. Very Active Member

Join Date
Nov 2008
Location
Australia
Posts
508
It's not that difficult....

In columns M,N,O&P in the water-oil sheet, all the values are in %. By way of translation, the first set of data would be as follows

Sw Kro Krw
0.1261 1 0
0.3219 0.2781 0.0641
0.4254 0.1589 0.0827
0.5128 0.0802 0.1107
0.5688 0.0456 0.1415
0.6072 0.0197 0.1739
0.6282 0.0165 0.2105
0.6841 0.0078 0.28
0.6993 0 0.4626

Achieved simply by dividing all the values by 100 to take it from % to fraction, then adding a row for Kr at Swir at the top and similarly at the bottom for Sw=1-Sor

There's no normalizing evident in this tabulated data - they may well have normalized it afterwards though
Last edited by vinomarky; 09-17-2010 at 04:19 PM.

9. Junior Member

Join Date
Mar 2009
Posts
19
Originally Posted by vinomarky
It's not that difficult....

In columns M,N,O&P in the water-oil sheet, all the values are in %. By way of translation, the first set of data would be as follows

Sw Kro Krw
0.1261 1 0
0.3219 0.2781 0.0641
0.4254 0.1589 0.0827
0.5128 0.0802 0.1107
0.5688 0.0456 0.1415
0.6072 0.0197 0.1739
0.6282 0.0165 0.2105
0.6841 0.0078 0.28
0.6993 0 0.4626

Achieved simply by dividing all the values by 100 to take it from % to fraction, then adding a row for Kr at Swir at the top and similarly at the bottom for Sw=1-Sor

There's no normalizing evident in this tabulated data - they may well have normalized it afterwards though
dear vinomarky
the normalized oil-water relative permeability used in simulation are
Sw Krw, Kro
0.1500,0.0000,1.0000
0.1894,0.0000,0.8789
0.2288,0.0001,0.7656
0.2681,0.0006,0.6602
0.3075,0.0018,0.5625
0.3469,0.0044,0.4727
0.3863,0.0091,0.3906
0.4256,0.0169,0.3164
0.4650,0.0288,0.2500
0.5044,0.0461,0.1914
0.5438,0.0702,0.1406
0.5831,0.1028,0.0977
0.6255,0.1455,0.0625
0.6619,0.2005,0.0352
0.7013,0.2696,0.0156
0.7406,0.3553,0.0039
0.7800,0.4600,0.0000
Normalized Gas liquid relative permeability used are
Sl, Krg, Kro
0.4000,1.0000,0.0000
0.4363,0.8789,0.0039
0.4725,0.7656,0.0156
0.5088,0.6602,0.0352
0.5450,0.5625,0.0625
0.5813,0.4727,0.0977
0.6175,0.3906,0.1406
0.6538,0.3164,0.1914
0.6900,0.2500,0.2500
0.7263,0.1914,0.3164
0.7625,0.1406,0.3906
0.7988,0.0977,0.4727
0.8350,0.0625,0.5625
0.8713,0.0352,0.6602
0.9075,0.0156,0.7656
0.9438,0.0039,0.8989
0.9800,0.0000,1.0000
my question is how this common table is deduced from the set of data earlier i posted, i just whant to know the technique if you put light on that

10. Very Active Member

Join Date
Nov 2008
Location
Australia
Posts
508
Originally Posted by vinomarky
(a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
This is how normalized saturation is calculated, similarly for gas rel perm. It is relative to MOBILE saturation rather than absolute saturation - sorry, don't have much else to offer