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Thread: Relative permeability normalization of special core analysis result

  1. Relative permeability normalization of special core analysis result

    Dear all
    I have gone through a sumulation study report, there expert have mentioned
    "water-oil & gas-oil relative permeability data have been used on the basis of experimental data on core of well#XYZ. They have gererated 6 set of data tables at different Swi & Sor

    my question is what is the method of normalization if some body can explain the matter in an excel file alongwith theory and step will be helpful for lay men like me


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  3. #2

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    At a high level, 'normalization' means making some changes to various data such that their characteristics can be compared in the same space

    In this case, normalizing rel per curves usually involves
    (a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
    You now have rel perm data defined from Swn = 0 (residual water) to Swn=1.0 (Sw = 1-Sor)

    (b) Dividing all the rel perm values by the rel perm to hydrocarbon at residual water, so that (for example, oil/water) at Swn=0, Kro=1. Sometimes this is also done for the water line

    Now you have a family of rel perms, all spanning the same ranges, which you can compare/overlay and look for similarities/groupings in shape/curvature. If you do find a family shape characteristic, then you normally fit a corey type exponent to it, then try to fit a set of equations to predict the endpoints as a function of (for example) perm and/or facie. Given these relationships, you can now make a reasonable prediction of any of this family of rock in your reservoir.
    Last edited by vinomarky; 09-17-2010 at 02:21 PM.

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  5. #3
    I think the best is to split the curves into different rock types, then from there merge the curves that shares same rock type using either kr or sw averaging methods with preference to kr average

  6. Quote Originally Posted by mid View Post
    I think the best is to split the curves into different rock types, then from there merge the curves that shares same rock type using either kr or sw averaging methods with preference to kr average
    could you elaborate with an examples how to do it

  7. Quote Originally Posted by vinomarky View Post
    At a high level, 'normalization' means making some changes to various data such that their characteristics can be compared in the same space

    In this case, normalizing rel per curves usually involves
    (a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
    You now have rel perm data defined from Swn = 0 (residual water) to Swn=1.0 (Sw = 1-Sor)

    (b) Dividing all the rel perm values by the rel perm to hydrocarbon at residual water, so that (for example, oil/water) at Swn=0, Kro=1. Sometimes this is also done for the water line

    Now you have a family of rel perms, all spanning the same ranges, which you can compare/overlay and look for similarities/groupings in shape/curvature. If you do find a family shape characteristic, then you normally fit a corey type exponent to it, then try to fit a set of equations to predict the endpoints as a function of (for example) perm and/or facie. Given these relationships, you can now make a reasonable prediction of any of this family of rock in your reservoir.
    dear vinomarky sir
    will you help me to understand above procedure you have speaked
    i have attached my excel file from where expert have deduced sets of data

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  9. #6

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    It's not that difficult....

    In columns M,N,O&P in the water-oil sheet, all the values are in %. By way of translation, the first set of data would be as follows

    Sw Kro Krw
    0.1261 1 0
    0.3219 0.2781 0.0641
    0.4254 0.1589 0.0827
    0.5128 0.0802 0.1107
    0.5688 0.0456 0.1415
    0.6072 0.0197 0.1739
    0.6282 0.0165 0.2105
    0.6841 0.0078 0.28
    0.6993 0 0.4626

    Achieved simply by dividing all the values by 100 to take it from % to fraction, then adding a row for Kr at Swir at the top and similarly at the bottom for Sw=1-Sor

    There's no normalizing evident in this tabulated data - they may well have normalized it afterwards though
    Last edited by vinomarky; 09-17-2010 at 04:19 PM.

  10. Quote Originally Posted by vinomarky View Post
    It's not that difficult....

    In columns M,N,O&P in the water-oil sheet, all the values are in %. By way of translation, the first set of data would be as follows

    Sw Kro Krw
    0.1261 1 0
    0.3219 0.2781 0.0641
    0.4254 0.1589 0.0827
    0.5128 0.0802 0.1107
    0.5688 0.0456 0.1415
    0.6072 0.0197 0.1739
    0.6282 0.0165 0.2105
    0.6841 0.0078 0.28
    0.6993 0 0.4626

    Achieved simply by dividing all the values by 100 to take it from % to fraction, then adding a row for Kr at Swir at the top and similarly at the bottom for Sw=1-Sor

    There's no normalizing evident in this tabulated data - they may well have normalized it afterwards though
    dear vinomarky
    the normalized oil-water relative permeability used in simulation are
    Sw Krw, Kro
    0.1500,0.0000,1.0000
    0.1894,0.0000,0.8789
    0.2288,0.0001,0.7656
    0.2681,0.0006,0.6602
    0.3075,0.0018,0.5625
    0.3469,0.0044,0.4727
    0.3863,0.0091,0.3906
    0.4256,0.0169,0.3164
    0.4650,0.0288,0.2500
    0.5044,0.0461,0.1914
    0.5438,0.0702,0.1406
    0.5831,0.1028,0.0977
    0.6255,0.1455,0.0625
    0.6619,0.2005,0.0352
    0.7013,0.2696,0.0156
    0.7406,0.3553,0.0039
    0.7800,0.4600,0.0000
    Normalized Gas liquid relative permeability used are
    Sl, Krg, Kro
    0.4000,1.0000,0.0000
    0.4363,0.8789,0.0039
    0.4725,0.7656,0.0156
    0.5088,0.6602,0.0352
    0.5450,0.5625,0.0625
    0.5813,0.4727,0.0977
    0.6175,0.3906,0.1406
    0.6538,0.3164,0.1914
    0.6900,0.2500,0.2500
    0.7263,0.1914,0.3164
    0.7625,0.1406,0.3906
    0.7988,0.0977,0.4727
    0.8350,0.0625,0.5625
    0.8713,0.0352,0.6602
    0.9075,0.0156,0.7656
    0.9438,0.0039,0.8989
    0.9800,0.0000,1.0000
    my question is how this common table is deduced from the set of data earlier i posted, i just whant to know the technique if you put light on that

  11. #8

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    Quote Originally Posted by vinomarky View Post
    (a) Changing Sw to normalized water saturation which for oil/water is Swn = (Sw - Swir)/(1-Sor-Swir).
    This is how normalized saturation is calculated, similarly for gas rel perm. It is relative to MOBILE saturation rather than absolute saturation - sorry, don't have much else to offer

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