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Thread: Article: Need some help about hydrates

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    Article: Need some help about hydrates

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    Anthony,

    To my knowledge there is no software or standards in determining the hydrate formation. However, this can be calculated.

    Firstly you are saying you are exploiting a gas field. The pressure within a gas cavern/well would be significantly higher than to 30 to 80Bar, i expect the pressure to be in the region of 150 to 300 Barg. The process of extracting gas from a well or cavity requires significant pressure reduction to the normal Transmission pressure (UK approx 60-75Bar).

    The processing equipment required for this is usually a filtration process and drying process to remove the water content from the gas, for the UK the transmission system needs to have a dew point of approx -15degC.

    The water extraction will depend on the drying process, Methanol is usually injected into the gas to reduce the freezing point of the water to prevent hydrate formation and allow the extraction of the liquids.

    Hope this helps.

    Karzy

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    Re: Article: Need some help about hydrates

    Use Hydrate formation utility in hysys

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    Hello,

    The formation of hydrates is affected mainly by pressure, temperature, composition of natural gas, mixing and kinetics. It is not necessary to have free water to get a formation of hydrates in the system.

    In your case, methane 100%, hydrates start to form at P = 400 Psia and T =35 F.

    You can use Hysys to determine if your stream can form hydrates or not.

    Refer also to the Engineering data book (GPSA).

    Good luck

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    Re: Article: Need some help about hydrates

    Gas hydrates are crystalline materials that can be formed from light hydrocarbons and acid
    gases in combination with water, at low temperatures and elevated pressures. An
    understanding of the conditions under which hydrates can form and the implementation of
    a robust hydrate control philosophy are essential elements of flow assurance for an oil/gas
    production system.

    Hydrate formation requirements:

    - Free liquid water or brine must be present
    - Small “gas” molecules; CH4, C2H6, C3H8, i-C4H10, CO2, H2S
    - Relatively low temperature
    - Relatively high pressure

    EvolutionB - Free water is a requirement, otherwise all the subsea gas export lines around the world which operate around 200 bar plus would hydrate up as they operate around 4°C. The reason they don't is that the gas is dry and no possibilities of water drop out due to cooling.

    Azad

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    Friend,
    I have a couple of procedures to be used for the calculation of formation of hydrates. write me back, and would be able to help you.
    this is my mail " mauricito_17@hotmail.com" .. I am from Bolivia, if you know spanish we can talk in spanish.

    Regards.

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    Re: Article: Need some help about hydrates

    I would recommend Sloan's book "Clathrate hydrates of natural gases",
    a good alternative (to introduce the matter) is that of Carrol "Natural Gas Hydrates" or the GPSA data book.
    To form hydrates free water is not required in the stream, "when free water is absent the vapor phase could still contain enough water to form hydrates, even very small amounts of water can form hydrates over a prolonged period of time"
    You can estimate hydrate formation conditions (temperature, pressure) from charts, simplified correlations or more complex thermodynamic models based on Van der Waals - Plateeuw theory, with the best prediction software you can expect errors of 2-5% on absolute values of temperature and pressure.
    I recommend two (free) software based on Van der Waals - Plateeuw model

    CSMHYD (School of Mines)
    'http://hydrates.mines.edu/CHR/Software_files/CSMHyd.zip'
    Prode Properties
    'http://www.prode.com/en/download.aspx?fname=ppp.exe'

    these are capable to calculate the hydrate depression temperature due to inhibitors as methanol, ethanol, glycols etc.
    Last edited by carlo.stenali; 05-09-2012 at 09:45 AM.

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