# Thread: Petrel Step by Step

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## Petrel Step by Step

Folks now i have time to start petrel course so as usual all extra data will be loaded to 4shared folder
The course i will introduce will cover almost all areas except seismic - the reason is for seismic you need to use more advance tools like IESX or Charizma, petrel only suitable for visualization and express analysis.

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[link Point to another website Only the registered members can access] The program will consist of the following chapters
1. Introduction to geological modeling and reserve calculation
2. Overview of the Petrel - general what you can done and what you can not done with petrel
3. Input data tree (Well data)
4. Input data tree (tops data)
5. Input data tree (surface data and points)
6. Input data tree (polygons)
7. Input data tree (images and other data)
8. Fault modeling
9. Structural modeling
11. Geometrical modeling
12.Facies modeling
13. Petrophysical modeling
14. Saturation modeling
15. Data analysis process
16. Volume calculations
17. How control quality of model
18. Upscaling
19. How control quality of upscale model
20. Writing simple workflow ( wells, surfaces, logs)
21. Exporting data to simulator
So we will need the following
Petrel 2009.1 or hire , Excel
Please do not ask me for the Petrel as i do not have it
So lets start ...........

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Chapter 1
Introduction to geological modeling and reserve calculation
The science of geological modeling and reserve calculation was born when the human started to ask the how i can calculate what i have inplace , the more sophisticated publication were started to appeared at the beginning of 20 century.
I will simplify and give just background if you need detail you can find books in this folder for almost any discipline i will mention
So what data are used calculate what is inplace ???
1. Interpretation of seismic 2D lines or 3D survey.
The approach of for seismic interpretation is the following
the wave in medium are traveling with certain speed the more density of medium the faster wave passing the medium. On the boarder of 2 medium with different densities speed of wave is changing - this is key principal in seismic acquisition and interpretation process .
To get or write seismic , on surface you need source of wave ( vibrator or dynamite) and receiver
You produce waves and read what time each produced wave travel to ground reflects and been red by receiver. Then you start to process seismic . The final result is seismic in time . To convert you seismic to depth you need to build valid velocity model based on measurements in wells.
So results of seismic can give you boundary of two media with different density - this may be horizon or fault.
The other thing you can do with 3D seismic ids to define different geobodies and attributes , based on them you can predict some parameters in inner well space like pseudo-porosity.
2. Well Data
During well drilling , well logging process taking place
The purpose of this process to make measurements in drilling hole to do the following
1. Define litology
2. Define porosity
3. Define resistivity

Several logging tools are available now, but all of them are working based on physical effects and the source of they measurements are
2. Wave time travel
3. Resistivity
The boundary of horizons
I will pass interpretation of the horizon process as this is process where person interpret horizon boundaries based only on his experience and vision and if for example you put 2 geologist in to 1 data set you will get at the end two different results - it is not a joke .
The logging tools writes data vs depth on step basis - it mean there is no data between steps , and as usual this data are results of linear interpolation of two points . The standard for now is Las 2.0
So interpreter uses several set of curves and his task is to calculate following set of curves
1. Pay
2.Porosity
3. Sw
4. Ressum table
So this 3 set of curves are a must to calculate reserves in model
Reservoir summation table is table where you put averages values for each well for each horizon.
3.Core data
During drilling also you need to take core sample the and for running following analysis
1. RCA
2. SCAL
RCA ( routine core analysis)
On this analysis you get following data
1. Porosity measurements ( to match calculated vs fact porosity)
2. Density measurements ( to get constants when calculating porosity from density logs)
1. Permeability vertical horizontal ( needed for permeability calculation and cut off)
2. Core structure analysis (for litology purposes)
3. Litology analysis ( for facies model purposes)
4. Resistivity analysis ( core sample saturated with brine to get resistivity values for Sw calculation by Archie formula)

SCAL(special core analysis)
1. Capillary pressure (defining the values of pressure and irreducible water saturation Swi)
2. Defining residual oil saturation (Imbibition drainage process)
3. Relative permeability (Imbibition drainage process)
Relative permeability directly not are not used in geological modeling but can be helpful during defining Sw cutoff
Well test data
To define position of you oil-water contact or gas-oil contact or gas-water contact you need to data
1. Sw by logs
2. Well test data
Well test data
After well finished you need to perforate and test it so each well have this following data during testing
1. Date of testing
2. Interval of testing
3. What been produced from interval
You will need all this data when you will define you initial let say OWC. Some times OWC tend to go up during production and for this you need to analysis dates and if need trash the certain data as YOU CULCULATE RESERVES AT TIME WHEN NO PRODUCTION TOOK PLACE
Fluid data
To get this data samples of fluids for reservoir take to laboratory where runs several test
the result of this test several but you need following
1. Initial Formation Volume Factor of oil (Bo - says what fraction of oil in reservoir condition to standard conditions)
2. Initial Formation Volume Factor of gas (Bg - says what fraction of oil in reservoir condition to standard conditions)
3. Initial Gas oil Ratio(GoR - says how much gas solved in 1 volume of oil in reservoir conditions)
4. Initial condensate (Rv - says how much condensate solved in gas )

Reserve calculation formulae
So how do we calculate reserves in place in standard conditions.
Before we need to calculate HSPV - hydrocarbon saturated pore volume
Bulk=All volume of you reservoir which lays above owc
NTG = Ration of net thickness to gross thickness in wells
NET=NTG*Bulk
PORO = average ( weighted on net ) porosity values
PV=Poro*Net
Sw= average ( weighted on PV ) Sw values
Soil=1-Sw
Sgas=1-Sw-Sor
where Sor oil residual oil saturation
HSPV= Bulk*NTG*Poro*(1-Sw)
for gas
HSPV= Bulk*NTG*Poro*(1-Sw-Sor)

OIL in standard m3
OIP= HSPV*(1/Bo)
Gas free in standard m3
GIP= HSPV*(1/Bg)
Gas solved in standard m3
GIP= OIP*GOR
Condensate
Condensate= GIP *Rv

One lyric step out
During my long practice i heard a lot of time that old fashion reserve calculation or manual and modern 3D systems are different in they approach(1) . My opinion is that they implement same algorithms and the different between them is that 3D models give more precise results than hand calculation, keep this in mind when you will work with old people who far from 3d models, and try not to harm them with the expression(1) which is not correct

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that's great
thanx bro

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thanks

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Overview of the Petrel - general what you can done and what you can not done with petrel
So for newcommers there is a hard decision what software to use .
For the moment on the market there several commercial packages available.
They are
Petrel from Schlumberger , Rms - form Roxar , Powermodel from Landmark .
There is also inhouse software like Gocad but in order to work on them you need to work in host company .
The most popular are Petrel form Schlumberger and Rms from Roxar .
It is up to you what to choose but i would advise you take Petrel and to understand the reason lets go to the past ...................
in 2002 Schlumberger acquired Technoguide company and there product Petrel . But who are this people standing for Technoguide company ?. Several Roxar employees for years were trying to enhance Rms with features they thought would breakthrough the product , but as usual management pay no attention to their efforts, and our heroes decided to quite . After they found Technoguide company and make they own package called Petrel . In 2 years they throw away Rms from key customer- that was there 1 win and sweet revenge....
So Petrel is enhance and more advance version of RMS - take the best .
So for what purposes you can use petrel.
1. Data base - it is quite reliable data base which can contain various type of data related to you project. The data of a various types, even you can store reservoir maps in jpeg format , how - will be shown later.
2. Log interpretation tool - within petrel you can make simple calculations on well logs , make statistics and make regression analysis calculations. Petrel does not have buildin petrophysical formulas but you can easily put them the only requirements for that you need to know them.
3. Geological interpretation tool - you can easily build cross-sections with certain logs to make geological interpretation of you horizons. It is more user friendly and easy to understand process
4. Fluid contact interpretation - making comment logs you can easily make cross section with all you well tests to see the depth of you well inflow
5. Making function - you can make correlation of 2 parameters and create function. This function can be used as trend or input data. This tool is quite useful as it allows you fast to find needed correlation. For example you need to see is there any function between depth and poro . In normal life you would need to open each log and put values of depth curve and poro curve to excel sheet . Here you just click 2 buttons and you get your correlation.
6. Making editing surfaces - You can make and edit surfaces using several algos , and make any statistic , volume and area calculation and different edit operations .
8. Interpret seismic ( horizons, bodies) - several tools available for seismic interpretation , but as i said before i will pass this section as i am not professional in it
9. Building velocity models - making simple velocity models to convert from time to depth
10. Making fault models - Advance tool to create fault with vast import parameters , will be covered later
11. Making corner point grid - The corner point format assumes that grid cell corners are distributed along vertical, linear pillars. All grid cells have 8 corners, but these may not be geometrically distinct due to grid pinch-outs. Since the grids are allowed to contain vertical faults, all the eight corners are provided for each grid block.
12. Structural modeling - Making complex horizon and zones with possible pitchout zones
13 Facies modeling - facies are a body of rock with specified characteristics , so petrel has as deterministic and stochastic algos to model . Also it has algos to model environment of depositions like channels , delt, etc.
14 Petrophysical modeling - quite advance tool to model petrophysical parameters like NTG , Poro and Perm in inner well space , i will describe later available algos
15 Volume calculation - Calculate volumes of you model for any type of HC
16 Make upscaling - Upscaling process is when you try to change resolution of you new grid but take parameters from existing grid with different scale .
17 Make data analysis - statistical tools for searching ranges and making proper data destitution will be covered in detail in certain chapter
18 Make statistics - this is lack in RMS but vast in petrel you can take any statistic you want
16 Simulation ( i will not describe it as running all simulation in other simulator)
17. Importing and visualizing eclipse results - this is a keen point as Flowvis is peace of sh*t and completely stacks with big simulation models ( >400 k active cells) . You can easily import and view you results and print for example current pressure maps weighed on poro volume and get average reservoir pressure around your wells ( more advance compare to WBP9)
18. Making workflows - this is powerful tool that can speed up you process it several times , you can create export change rebuild surfaces points logs properties automatically . I will dedicate one full chapter were we will construct several easy workflow and will supply you with existing workflows.
19.Writing you own plugins - but this world is not perfect certain things you can not do in workflows or you can but the process is to slow. Plagins is the add in you can write in Ocean environment using Visual Basic . It is advance area so if any has Ocean for 2009 you are welcome to post it here .
What you can not do in petrel
There is now dedicated workflow to model saturation and this you need to create by yourself

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plz 。go on

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Dear Temr,

Please carry on. It will be usefull to us.
Thanks

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patient friends..

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thank you very much!

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thanks