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Table of Contents
Preface xv

About the Authors xvii

On the Cover xviii

Nomenclature xix



Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1-1 Safety Programs 2

1-2 Engineering Ethics 4

1-3 Accident and Loss Statistics 4

1-4 Acceptable Risk 12

1-5 Public Perceptions 14

1-6 The Nature of the Accident Process 15

1-7 Inherent Safety 20

1-8 Seven Significant Disasters 23

Suggested Reading 31

Problems 32

Chapter 2: Toxicology 37

2-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms 38

2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms 41

2-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms 42

2-4 Toxicological Studies 43

2-5 Dose versus Response 44

2-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves 50

2-7 Relative Toxicity 56

2-8 Threshold Limit Values 56

2-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond 58

On-Line Resources 59

Suggested Reading 60

Problems 60

Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene 65

3-1 Government Regulations 66

3-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification 78

3-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation 84

3-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control 99

On-Line Resources 109

Suggested Reading 109

Problems 110

Chapter 4: Source Models 119

4-1 Introduction to Source Models 119

4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole 122

4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank 126

4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes 131

4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes 140

4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes 146

4-7 Flashing Liquids 163

4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling 169

4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases 170

4-10 Conservative Analysis 172

Suggested Reading 173

Problems 174

Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models 185

5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion 186

5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models 190

5-3 Dense Gas Dispersion 209

5-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas 219

5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria 225

5-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy 233

5-7 Release Mitigation 234

Suggested Reading 235

Problems 236

Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions 245

6-1 The Fire Triangle 245

6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions 247

6-3 Definitions 247

6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors 249

6-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting 260

6-6 Flammability Diagram 262

6-7 Ignition Energy 270

6-8 Autoignition 270

6-9 Auto-Oxidation 271

6-10 Adiabatic Compression 272

6-11 Ignition Sources 273

6-12 Sprays and Mists 274

6-13 Explosions 275

Suggested Reading 304

Problems 305

Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions 317

7-1 Inerting 318

7-2 Static Electricity 333

7-3 Controlling Static Electricity 356

7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments 363

7-5 Ventilation 367

7-6 Sprinkler Systems 370

7-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions 374

Suggested Reading 374

Problems 375

Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity 381

8-1 Background Understanding 382

8-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards 384

8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters 390

8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards 416

Suggested Reading 418

Problems 418

Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs 429

9-1 Relief Concepts 430

9-2 Definitions 432

9-3 Location of Reliefs 433

9-4 Relief Types and Characteristics 436

9-5 Relief Scenarios 443

9-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs 444

9-7 Relief Systems 444

Suggested Reading 452

Problems 453

Chapter 10: Relief Sizing 459

10-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service 460

10-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 466

10-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service 470

10-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 471

10-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief 472

10-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs 481

10-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions 481

10-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels 488

10-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids 492

Suggested Reading 496

Problems 497

Chapter 11: Hazards Identification 505

11-1 Process Hazards Checklists 508

11-2 Hazards Surveys 508

11-3 Hazards and Operability Studies 524

11-4 Safety Reviews 530

11-5 Other Methods 537

Suggested Reading 538

Problems 538

Chapter 12: Risk Assessment 549

12-1 Review of Probability Theory 550

12-2 Event Trees 564

12-3 Fault Trees 569

12-4 QRA and LOPA 577

Suggested Reading 588

Problems 588

Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs 597

13-1 Process Safety Hierarchy 598

13-2 Managing Safety 599

13-3 Best Practices 600

13-4 ProceduresOperating 600

13-5 ProceduresPermits 601

13-6 ProceduresSafety Reviews and Accident Investigations 603

13-7 Designs for Process Safety 604

13-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions 615

13-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions 615

13-10 Designs for Handling Dusts 616

Suggested Reading 617

Problems 618

Chapter 14: Case Histories 621

14-1 Static Electricity 622

14-2 Chemical Reactivity 626

14-3 System Designs 631

14-4 Procedures 637

14-5 Training 642

14-6 Conclusion 645

Suggested Reading 646

Problems 646

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 649

Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 653

Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams 659

Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures 659

Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service 664

Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4 669

Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 679

Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals 681

Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances 687

Index 695

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See More: Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, 3rd Edition