View Full Version : Reservoir Simulation

05-22-2008, 10:45 AM
Can any1 explain to me the main idea behind reservoir simulation ?
i mean what shall i study , which softwares will be at help, am trying to work in this field when i graduate so i wanna prepare myself ,so what do u suggest :D?

have anice day

06-02-2008, 06:05 AM
no1 knows about it or what ?

12-09-2008, 03:26 AM
resevoir simulators are just tools for reservoir engineerings
they are programs to solve numerically flow egution of fluid in porous media
the most Known one is eclipse 100 for black oil and 300 for compositional
you can start learning about reservoir simulation by reading the first published book about by KHaled aziz 1977 I am not sure about the date
it is old and very good starting point about the theory behind that
but if want to learn how to simulate I mean the practical side you have to have special training courses of shlumberger which they are very very expensive but however u can download the program and the ***** find simple cases(very well kown one to caliprate the simulator infact try SPE cases) to run and try to understand them and sure the manual of eclipse well help you alot the technical manual,
I will give an idea about Eclipse later

12-25-2008, 11:31 PM
al salam 3alikom
i read the reply from pump2000, it is very good informations,
reservoir engineering based on diffusivity equation which can be solved by many methods, analytical methods that used for well testing and aquifer description.
reservoir simulation is numerical solution for the diffusivity equation.
reservoir model consist of two phases static phase( structural description for your reservoir and it is the task of the geologist) and the dynamic phase is to load the cells with the fluids and initiate your model with the wells that are matching points for the model in RFT data, production data (BFPD, BOPD,WC, WHP, BHFP,....)
after you match these parametres for all wells you have to run many sensitivity cases to show the response of your model for the change in the uncertain parameters, then you can use your model for prediction.

12-26-2008, 12:09 AM
al salam 3alikom
i read the reply from pump2000, it is very good informations,.

Can you upload some reservoir simulation documents?
thank you very much!

01-15-2009, 04:54 PM
reservoir simulation is creating fluid flow equation that describes the reservoir performance

03-21-2009, 05:35 PM
is it possible to use eclipse without taking help from petrel... if yes ..then how to create static model... and start using eclipse..?

03-21-2009, 10:39 PM
hiiiii all
yes it is possible to work with Eclipse without any help from Petrel.
any modeling software (static or dynamic state) must be able to import to and export from other softwares.
for example Petrel can export static model to VIP, CMG, Eclipse, timpest,....
the same CMG, Geoframe, Landmark, RMS,...
it dependinding on the available static software you have.
i hope it is clear,

03-22-2009, 02:04 AM
is it possible to use eclipse without taking help from petrel... if yes ..then how to create static model... and start using eclipse..?

There are two models for modeling:
1. Static modeling by using (Petrel, Gocad, RMS,...)
2. Dynamic modeling by using (Eclipse, CMG, VIP,...)

So we can not run dynamic modeling (simulation) without Static model !

Fist, we need Petrel for built (1) 3D structure model (hoizons/faults) --> (2) Facies modeling --> (3) Properties modeling (K, Phi,...) --> (4) Upscaling model (for simulation) --> (5) export model.

Second, we import (static model from Petrel) to Eclipse and then run simulation,....... and so on ( I have never used Eclipse)... please some one give some more ideas here....

So the result of simulation modeling is also depend on STATIC model ( Geostatistic model) from Petrel
Some one have other ideas or suggestions please discuss more.!

Thank you!

03-22-2009, 06:54 AM
I agree with bratek, very clear !!!
When you run the simulation and the value is the same that real production (history matching) then you can to make the forecast for the future production

If the simulation no represent the real production you need modify the STATIC MODEL (with Petrel or others).

The model of the secondary production (with water injection ) is more difficult that only primary production. Other important simulation is with stream lines.

good luck

03-22-2009, 02:51 PM
The steps are as per Bratek.

The STATIC model describes the geometry of the field and the flow layer properties ( perm, porosity, net thickness, depth, etc).

ECLIPSE needs this Static model plus PVT properties to model the fluids present, relative permeability to model what happens to perms for the different phases as saturation changes, capillary pressure curves to model distribution of fluids in your dynamic model, location of the contacts (oil-water, gas-oil, etc depending on what fluids you have initially in the reservoir), aquifer if present. These are the big ones for getting started.

Once you get the model together, the first question will be if it is giving you the right volumes of gas and oil as compared to you volumetric calculations. This validates that you have the HC in the modeled right !!! If not you will need to start to check things that effect volumes (PVT, Static Model, contacts, capillary pressure curve etc).

Assuming volumes match, now you run the model and see if the models the gas/oil/water production on a field, region or per well level. This is where the fun starts and experience becomes important.

03-22-2009, 06:27 PM
If you use all cells, the time of the run simulation es very long.
In Eclipse we use property in orden to decrease the simulation time called ACTNUM (ACTNUM=0 inactive cell and ACTNUM=1 active cell). This property has a cutoff value.

ACTNUM is definited in the STATIC MODEL and exported a Eclipse.

What property do you use for ACTNUM (i.e. porosity, SP distributed with Kriging, etc.)?

03-22-2009, 06:55 PM
hiiiiii all
i agree with all written from all brothers,
when i said yes you can work with eclipse without any help from petrel ,i was meaning that the static model can be imported from any other software like RMS, gocad,....i wasnt so clear.
for ACTNUM i think the Porosity may be good property for that but you have to care for the facies modeling for example shale values will be high and care also for the IOIP as you will remove volumes from the model.
i never use ACTNUM to reduce the no. of cells to decrease simulation time.
i always use UPSCALING module in PETREL to do this job.
you got two benifits
frist decrease the no. of cells without removing any part from the model,
second the upscalled grid will have average properties for the original ones,
at last you use well correlation window to check the validity of the properties of upscaled grids with the original properties for all wells.
i hope it is clear

03-22-2009, 06:57 PM
Dear All,
I am responsible for implementing a toll for optimization of production and exploitation of the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Plant using the data obtained from continuous measurement of phase contents in formation fluid. I shall appropriate production control and field management algorithms design and implement.
What you expect would be a level and span of the optimization?
Reservoirs, wells, pipelines, processing facilities, …?
Could you suggest something please?


03-23-2009, 01:47 AM
Dear all,

Thank you very much!

03-23-2009, 12:36 PM
i always use UPSCALING module in PETREL to do this job.

Yes, this is the way to go about it. If you have PETREL you should be doing all these adjustments here and not with ACTNUM. You also have to remember that ECLIPSE has certain keywords which were needed BEFORE powerful pre-processors were available to make the STATIC Model.

The Static Model should be built BY A GEOLOGIST unless you are in a small company with too much work and too few staff. The reservoir engineer should be involved as the geologist do make mistakes!!!!!!! That is why these are often team projects!!!!!

As a REng. you need to look at the logs and at least check how well cross-sections through your Static Model reflect what is seen at the wells. Are the shales where they should be, are the sands etc where they should be, is the volume properties around the well reflected in measure values from Well Tests, etc.

As for Seismic, again, a mistake in processing may put the horizons too deep or too shallow. Check, check and check again. Mistakes here could move the OWC in the wrong direction and give you a nasty surprise when they drill based on the model simulation results.

I'm a REng so I can not directly address your question, however I would say this. As good as the software is today you will not do miracles. You will in the end chose what YOU THINK is the best method to work the data. The better you know the area the better job you will do.

If you are new in the area start asking questions of the geologist familiar with the area as every place is different. It also helps (in the case of PETREL) to know UNDER what circumstances SHOULD you use their different models to generate the properties based on your log/seismic data (garbage in is garbage out). Be conservative as you are dealing with something you DO NOT SEE and you have limited data.

Try to agree on some direction based through group discussion, group reviews. DO NOT BE intimidated not to say you do not know something. This very often this is a problem in our business.

03-23-2009, 02:13 PM
Try to agree on some direction based through group discussion, group reviews. DO NOT BE intimidated not to say you do not know something. This very often this is a problem in our business.

Many thank to Shakespear! ....... you are a WRITER engineering! your reply is so long which I have seen in this forum. :D.
Next steep, when I make upcaling model will need some more helps from you!

Because of lack of well data so the model of Horizon Variogam is not good ! (I don't know how to choose correct direction, range of the Horizon Variogram).

Now, I'm thinking about to make some Amplitude maps base on 2D seismic (!) which is maybe help me something ? ( I have never done it before)

Anyone have some experiences please help me more!

Thank you very much for your helps.

03-23-2009, 02:58 PM
Thanks for the complement Bratek :)

Take a look here

GridSTAT - Geostatistics Reservoir Characterization, Modeling and Simulation ()

The discussion may give you some clues what to do. The following also had good points about QC of variograms.

Untitled Document ()

Variogram Panel

Variograms model the spatial continuity of whatever data is being gridded (in this case, subsea depth of formation top).

Click the Points button on the left of the panel to calculate the variogram points. The All Variograms graph shows the variograms for the northwest, north, northeast, and east directions as well as the vertical variogram. The well pair variance graph shows how the variance between wells varies with the distance between them. For those well pairs that are close (small separation distance) but that still have large variances, there is usually error associated with either the data, the location, or the markers. The areal variogram graph shows how reservoir continuity varies in the different directions.

Click the Curve button to fit a variogram model to the calculated points. If you don’t know which model to choose, select Spherical first. For structure depth type of data, the spherical variogram is ususally tried first.
Points to check in Variogram panel:

1. Make sure you have multiple wells if you want to calculate areal variogram.

2. You need multiple data points in each trace to calculate vertical variogram.

3. In the current version each project should contain one type of data for variogram calculation.

4. Calculate the variogram points first.

5. Curve fit the results. The fit is automatic as soon as you choose a model.

6. Other graphs may be brought up from the Graph button on the left. Change the graphs with Options pulldown menu Graphpar panel. For example you may turn off some of the curves on the All Variograms graph.

7. Variograms usually increases with distance.

8. Vertical variogram usually reaches high variance value in much shorter distance.

9. Well Pair Variance graph is a good indicator of data quality. For those well pairs that are in short distance but showing relatively large variance, there is usually problem in the data or well location.

10. Correlation Ratio to Vertical (CR_v) is usually larger than 10 (50, 100, 1000 depending on the data) if the vertical scale is depth. If vertical scale is layer index (when imported as layer data), it depends on the layer thickness and whether the data in different layers are correlated.

Go to the next panel by either clicking on the Next button on the lower left or by clicking on GridOption on the right hand side of the panel.

Although it is regarding Tops data, it is still useful to try and understand the logic.

Bratek, are you a geologist or a petroleum engineer? Or both :) Are you using PETREL?

PS: One of the papers mentioned in the above link was not there but I found it here

SPE84055.pdf ( 0Distribution%20of%20Gas%20Reservoir%20in%20Jilin, %20China.pdf)

At the above address you will find more papers

More ()

This paper has your situation

Also available are interpreted well logs characterizing the vertical variation of porosity at eight different wells.

Paper ( tical%20Techniques%20Combined%20with%20Vertical%20 Well%20Data.pdf)

Another good paper

More ()

Well I am on a roll now, this paper you will find very useful

The French :) ()

03-26-2009, 03:44 PM
Thank you very much !!!!
I m geologist. Two years ago I worked in a reservoir simulation with 1200000 cells, with 0.5 meters of thickness, and we worked with ACTNUM, the cutoff was 5 % of porosity. The field have large water injection and the history matching was very good !!!!!
The areal upscaling was in no productive areas of the grid.

best wishes

03-26-2009, 07:53 PM
Just to clarify what I was thinking :):):)

You can always go into the DATA file and work with ACTNUM.

What I meant was that PETREL (I believe as I am not a user of it and it has replaced FLOGRID which I use) should have the option for you to set cut-offs or conditions to make cells inactive and then translate this into ACTNUM or other keywords when it outputs a file to be used by ECLIPSE ( model description in terms of properties and grid geometry).

Same would need to be done for cells which have tiny pore volumes which could create problems running the model.

03-26-2009, 08:45 PM
hey Shakespear.... how to use flogrid in place of petrel! Please...

03-27-2009, 11:34 AM
OK, here we go. :)

PETREL was bought by Schlumberger as it is a top of the line application for modeling the geology. Hence, it is an application which FIRST in line is made for a geologist, and only after this I would say for a reservoir engineer. Unless you have a simple situation or work in a small company, the Static Model will be made for you by a geologist!!!!

FLOGRID is made for a reservoir engineer. He would go to the geologist and ask to be given logs, TOP/BOT maps of horizons etc., and make the Static Model himself. I am simplifiing what I say above but in a nut shell that is what happens. FLOGRID is not primarily for geologists.

How to use FLOGRID? Well the simplest way to learn it if you have no one around to show you is to get the Data Files for the tutorials and go step by step to try to understand the logic of the problem. Understanding the logic is the first hurdle. The second is learning where various options are and how/when to use them!!!! THIS TAKES TIME, thus work on something simple until you understand it. (The same goes for SCHEDULE program!!!!) It is easy to screw up!!!!!!

Last is data preparation (or maybe it should be first). The format must be right, it should be input into FLOGRID correctly and then DOUBLE CHECKED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

PETREL and FLOGRID are able to record the loading/processing steps when building a model. Thus if some data changes you just run the command file and FLOGRID will automatically rebuild the STATIC Model :)

So if this is the way you want to go get someone to upload the DATA files for Tutorials and start there.;);););)

03-27-2009, 05:57 PM
Hi friends,
It is very very very good book of Luca Cosentino.
He talk about everything, data, modeling, simulation, etc.

MEGAUPLOAD - The leading online storage and file delivery service ()

03-27-2009, 07:38 PM
i'm a reservoir engineer trying to learn reservoir simulation and use of eclipse...

03-27-2009, 08:29 PM
Do look around here for the link to the Heriot-Watt lecture notes on simulation. IMO (in my opinion) it is a very good basic introduction and if you do their exercises you will learn something useful !!!!

When running ECLIPSE you will need to learn to find mistakes, problems etc. and one place to do this is in the PRT file. Better to learn this on simple problems than on a large complicated model. :):):)

03-28-2009, 05:20 PM
your advice will definitely help...
Thank you once again Shakespear!

04-01-2009, 04:29 PM

To learn ECLIPSE at your level I would download the Heritt-Wat course on Reservoir Simulation ( pdf file). For a start this is Excellent place to begin.

When you get the file read this section "Reservoir Simulation Model Set-Up 3". Try to do what they tell you to do and run the complete DATA file using ECLIPSE (EC). When you do this I will try to help you to understand how to deal with what comes out as you will most likely make mistakes and EC will not run the first time. Making mistakes is part of the learning process and it is better to do it on this type of problems first.

EC has its own syntax (words) for expressing to it what you want EC to model. The file that EC runs ( called DATA file ) has a number of sections.

Data file is divided into certain key sections that define the model to be run:

• Model dimensions
• Grid and rock properties
• Fluid properties
• Initial conditions
• Output requirements
• Production schedule

Here is shown the KEYWORDS (syntax) to express when a given section of data begins.

-- Keywords used to identify the start of specific
-- data to describe the simulation model.




If you run the HWatt example then we can talk so more on what to do next.

04-05-2009, 04:54 PM
The following is a nice basic outline of reservoir simulation

Chevron Sim ()

Something on Geostatistics

Geostatistics ()

I found all this on the following website which appears to search for freely available pdf files !!!! FREE means why not look :)

Geo ()

06-29-2009, 10:09 PM
Dear Shakespear,

Can you share the lecture notes and exercises of Heriot Watt about reservoir simulation?
I can not see any link here.

Thanks and Best regards,


06-30-2009, 03:32 PM
this is for u :)

**************/files/BNJ263DI/Heriot-Watt University - Reservoir Simulation.pdf.html

07-01-2009, 10:41 PM
pls somebody tell me how you access a 3D view in eclipse/office without you been referred to Floviz

07-01-2009, 11:04 PM
You can use Petrel

07-12-2009, 02:09 PM
This thread has really been helpful to me, since am interested in knowing everything that has to with reservoir simulation and hopeful someday use my knowledge to solve exquisite problems relating to the oil and gas industry.. Am already on it.

07-13-2009, 07:19 PM
i am unable to download the file. Message s coming like"THE DAILY TRAFFIC LIMIT FOR YOUR COUNTRY IS CONSUMED. IT'S TIME TO BUY A PREMIUM ACCOUNT". Please save other location.

07-13-2009, 07:44 PM
Try using a website that acts as a proxy. This way perhaps you will get there as thought it is not from your country.

The file is there. :-)

07-14-2009, 06:04 AM
Try using a website that acts as a proxy. This way perhaps you will get there as thought it is not from your country.

The file is there. :-)
Dear Shakespear,

again i am unable to download the file. samemMessage is coming like"THE DAILY TRAFFIC LIMIT FOR YOUR COUNTRY IS CONSUMED. IT'S TIME TO BUY A PREMIUM ACCOUNT". Please save other location like 4share.com etc. I need this file to learn Eclipse.

07-16-2009, 06:03 AM
Thanks for the feedback. That is very useful.

taux pret auto ()

08-10-2009, 02:28 AM
thank u all very useful,waiting for more eperts

08-10-2009, 07:20 PM
ok kool
thanks alot

09-13-2009, 05:31 AM
please Stingy39 could you upload the file of heriott again i'm really in need for it

04-15-2010, 10:24 PM
Here is Heriot-Watt

04-17-2010, 08:14 AM
thanks for share

01-02-2011, 07:03 AM
please share again .... please

01-03-2011, 02:17 PM

03-22-2011, 06:25 AM
I have a couple of questions regarding reservoir simulation in Eclipse software suite.

1. I cannot use relative path along with LOAD keyword in fast restart. It will be very convenient if I could use such option. This is occured because of personal comuter was incorrectly configured by system administrator.
2. The keyword ENDINC does not work for me. Eclipse continue parse rest of file. Is there a way to make it working? I am aware about SKIP/ENDSKIP keywords but in my case ENDINC will be preferable. I have reported this bug to technical support.

03-03-2012, 09:11 PM
Hi Friends
Many Thanks for your helpful notes. Any body here can share some new courses or tutorial for Petrel RE ?
Thanks again

12-05-2013, 08:50 AM
Hi friends
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if anybody need Please contact me I will share with you. Also I need some applications hope you can kindly help me.

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07-08-2014, 08:39 PM
dear all ,
can any body share Geostatistical Reservoir Modeling by Clayton?
further could any body guide which book to read so as to understand geostatistics?

07-08-2014, 08:47 PM
dear all ,
can any body share Geostatistical Reservoir Modeling by Clayton?
further could any body guide which book to read so as to understand geostatistics?

07-09-2014, 09:42 PM